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Information The Cannabis Plant Grow Stages
Posted by: wikicannabis - 07-19-2015, 02:22 PM - Forum: General Cannabis Grow Chat - No Replies

Here are the six stages of the marijuana plant growth.

Quote:Marijuana growth stages are generally discussed in terms of the three main growth stages of germinationvegetative, and flowering, but there are, in fact, six stages to the cannabis plant life cycle. In order to achieve the best possible results in growing marijuana, it is important to understand the six stages of cannabis growth and how each can affect yield and potency.

THE SIX GROWTH STAGES OF THE CANNABIS PLANT LIFE CYCLE

Here are an overview of the six growth stagesGermination stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative Growth stage, Pre-flowering stage, Flowering stage, and Seed stage.

1. Germination Stage:
The initial stage in the cannabis plant life cycle is the germination stage. The seed opens and produces a root to anchor itself into the soil while opening two embryonic leaves as it reaches the surface to receive sunlight (or simulated sunlight in the form of indoor grow lights). It can take anywhere from 12 hour up to 3 weeks for seeds to germinate.

2. Seedling Stage:
Once the embryonic leaves are receiving sunlight, the plant will enter the seedling stage. The seedling stage is where the plant will begin to take on some marijuana characteristics by producing a new set of small leaves. These seedling stage leaves will have the familiar three-rounded finger shaped points that are identified with the cannabis plant.  The seedling will produce more  of these leaves and push upward with a stem. The seedling stage can last between 1 to 3 weeks. The plant should have around 4 to 8 leaves at the end of the seedling stage (some of the old leaves at bottom will begin to drop off). One thing to keep in mind during this stage is that the seedling stems can be very weak at this point and may require a support.

3. Vegetative Growth Stage:
The vegetative growth stage is where the plant begins to really grow and producing leaves.  This is the stage where the plant needs all the light and food it can get to maximize growth. The plant will grow upward producing news leaves with thicker stems and branches. The plant will spend approximately 1 to 5 months of its life in the vegetative growth stage and start to show early indicators of its sex as the plant enters the pre-flowering stage.

4. Pre-Flowering Stage:
Once the plant moves from the vegetative growth stage to the pre-flowering stage, the cannabis plant will slow down in growing upward and being to “fill out” by producing more branches and nodes.  The pre-flowering stage is characterized by calyx at the nodes (part of the plant where branches meet the stem). The sex of the plant will become more apparent with the development of calyx. The pre-flowering stage lasts anywhere from 1 day up to 2 weeks. The pre-flowering stage is where male plants are generally separated from the female cannabis plant.

5. Flowering Stage:
The plant will continue to fill out and show its sex clearly during the flowering stage.  The “grape-like” clusters distinguish the male cannabis plant, while the female plant will have pale hair like pistils coming out of a “pod”.  During the 4 to 16 weeks of the flowering stage, the cannabis plant will continue its growth until the flowers fully develop. The male plant’s “grape-like” pollen sacks will burst and spread its pollen during the flowering stage.

6. Seed Stage:
The seed stage is where any pollinated female plant produces seeds within the plant’s buds. The seed can take between 2 weeks up to 16 weeks to grow fully to maturity.  Left alone, the female plant’s seedpods will burst and drop the seeds. Most breeders will harvest the seeds prior to the seedpods bursting.

Source: PotFarmersMart.com "The Six Stages of Marijuana Growth"

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  California Medical Marijuana Laws - Ballot Proposition 215
Posted by: wikicannabis - 07-13-2015, 02:21 PM - Forum: Medical Marijuana State Laws Wiki - No Replies

California Medical Marijuana Laws:


Quote:Ballot Proposition 215 (http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/california-proposition-215.pdf)  -- Approved Nov. 5, 1996 by 56% of voters
Effective: Nov. 6, 1996

Removes state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess a "written or oral recommendation" from their physician that he or she "would benefit from medical marijuana." Patients diagnosed with any debilitating illness where the medical use of marijuana has been "deemed appropriate and has been recommended by a physician" are afforded legal protection under this act.

Approved Conditions: AIDS, anorexia, arthritis, cachexia, cancer, chronic pain, glaucoma, migraine, persistent muscle spasms, including spasms associated with multiple sclerosis, seizures, including seizures associated with epilepsy, severe nausea; Other chronic or persistent medical symptoms.

Amended: Senate Bill 420 (http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/SB420.pdf)
Effective: Jan. 1, 2004

Imposes statewide guidelines outlining how much medicinal marijuana patients may grow and possess.

Possession/Cultivation: Qualified patients and their primary caregivers may possess no more than eight ounces of dried marijuana and/or six mature (or 12 immature) marijuana plants. However, S.B. 420 allows patients to possess larger amounts of marijuana when recommended by a physician. The legislation also allows counties and municipalities to approve and/or maintain local ordinances permitting patients to possess larger quantities of medicinal pot than allowed under the new state guidelines.

S.B. 420 also grants implied legal protection to the state's medicinal marijuana dispensaries, stating, "Qualified patients, persons with valid identification cards, and the designated primary caregivers of qualified patients ... who associate within the state of California in order collectively or cooperatively to cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, shall not solely on the basis of that fact be subject to state criminal sanctions."

Challenge to Possession Limits: On Jan. 21, 2010, the California Supreme Court affirmed (S164830  (http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/PeoplevKelly_S164830.pdf)) the May 22, 2008 Second District Court of Appeals ruling  (http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/second-district-court-of-appeals-ruling-kelly-case.PDF) in the Kelly Case that the possession limits set by SB 420 violate the California constitution because the voter-approved Prop. 215 can only be amended by the voters.

ProCon.org contacted the California Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) on Dec. 6, 2010 to ask 1) how the ruling affected the implementation of the program, and 2) what instructions are given to patients regarding possession limits. A California Department of Public Health (CDPH) Office of Public Affairs representative wrote the following in a Dec. 7, 2010 email to ProCon.org: "The role of MMP under Senate Bill 420 is to implement the State Medical Marijuana ID Card Program in all California counties. CDPH does not oversee the amounts that a patient may possess or grow. When asked what a patient can possess, patients are referred to http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov, case S164830 which is the Kelly case, changing the amounts a patient can possess from 8 oz, 6 mature plants or 12 immature plants to 'the amount needed for a patient’s personal use.' MMP can only cite what the law says."

According to a Jan. 21, 2010 article titled "California Supreme Court Further Clarifies Medical Marijuana Laws," by Aaron Smith, California Policy Director at the Marijuana Policy Project, the impact of the ruling is that people growing more than 6 mature or 12 immature plants are still subject to arrest and prosecution, but they will be allowed to use a medical necessity defense in court.]

Attorney General's Guidelines:
On Aug. 25, 2008, California Attorney General Jerry Brown issued guidelines for law enforcement and medical marijuana patients to clarify the state's laws. Read more about the guidelines here.

California Department of Public Health
Public Health Policy and Research Branch
Attention: Medical Marijuana Program Unit
MS 5202
P.O. Box 997377
Sacramento, CA 95899-7377
Phone: 916-552-8600
Fax: 916-440-5591

mmpinfo@cdph.ca.gov

Website:
CA Medical Marijuana Program

Guidelines for the Security and Non-diversion of Marijuana Grown for Medical Use (http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/sourcefiles/Brown_Guidelines_Aug08.pdf)

Information provided by the state on sources for medical marijuana:
"The MMP is not authorized to provide information on acquiring marijuana or other related products." "Medical Marijuana Program Frequently Asked Questions," cdph.ca.gov(accessed Apr. 24, 2014)

"The California Department of Public Health administers the Medical Marijuana Identification Card (MMIC) program only and does not have any information regarding dispensaries, growing collectives, etc…" "Dispensaries, Cooperatives and Collectives," cdph.ca.gov(accessed Apr. 24, 2014)

Patient Registry Fee:
$66 non Medi-Cal / $33 Medi-Cal, plus additional county fees (varies by location)

Accepts other states' registry ID cards?
No

Registration:
Voluntary

Source: http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view....California

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  Alaska Marijuana Laws - Ballot Measure 8
Posted by: wikicannabis - 07-13-2015, 01:52 PM - Forum: Medical Marijuana State Laws Wiki - No Replies

Alaska's Marijuana Laws:


Quote:Ballot Measure 8  -- Approved Nov. 3, 1998 by 58% of voters
Effective: Mar. 4, 1999

Removed state-level criminal penalties on the use, possession and cultivation of marijuana by patients who possess written documentation from their physician advising that they "might benefit from the medical use of marijuana."

Approved Conditions: Cachexia, cancer, chronic pain, epilepsy and other disorders characterized by seizures, glaucoma, HIV or AIDS, multiple sclerosis and other disorders characterized by muscle spasticity, and nausea. Other conditions are subject to approval by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services.

Possession/Cultivation: Patients (or their primary caregivers) may legally possess no more than one ounce of usable marijuana, and may cultivate no more than six marijuana plants, of which no more than three may be mature. The law establishes a confidential state-run patient registry that issues identification cards to qualifying patients.

Amended: Senate Bill 94
Effective: June 2, 1999

Mandates all patients seeking legal protection under this act to enroll in the state patient registry and possess a valid identification card. Patients not enrolled in the registry will no longer be able to argue the "affirmative defense of medical necessity" if they are arrested on marijuana charges.

Update: Alaska Statute Title 17 Chapter 37

Creates a confidential statewide registry of medical marijuana patients and caregivers and establishes identification card.

Alaska Bureau of Vital Statistics
Marijuana Registry
P.O. Box 110699
Juneau, AK 99811-0699
Phone: 907-465-5423

BVSSpecialServices@health.state.ak.us

Website:
AK Marijuana Registry Online

Information provided by the state on sources for medical marijuana:
No information is provided

Patient Registry Fee:
$25 new application/$20 renewal

Accepts other states' registry ID cards?
No

Registration:
Mandatory

Source: "23 Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC"

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  Happy July 4th!
Posted by: wikicannabis - 07-04-2015, 03:24 PM - Forum: WikiCannabis.com News & Announcements - No Replies

Happy July 4th! Enjoy and stay safe!

[Image: SVAcCOsm.jpg]

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[Image: jmF5RJ4m.jpg]

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Information 23 Health Benefits Of Marijuana
Posted by: wikicannabis - 07-02-2015, 05:32 AM - Forum: Marijuana in the News - No Replies

This is an article from last year by writers at Business Insider. Still relevant and informative.

Quote:23 Health Benefits Of Marijuana
JENNIFER WELSH AND KEVIN LORIA
Apr. 20, 2014


States around the country — more than 20 in total — have legalized medical marijuana.

Experts have been changing their minds too — recently, CNN's chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta reversed his opinion on medical marijuana.

While recreational pot usage is controversial, many people agree with Gupta's new stance, and believe that the drug should be legal for medical uses.

And even though the benefits of smoking pot may be overstated by advocates of marijuana legalization, new laws will help researchers study the drug's medicinal uses and better understand how it impacts the body.

Currently only 6% of studies on marijuana analyze its medicinal properties.

Keep in mind, though, that there are negative effects of smoking too much pot or using it for non-medicinal purposes. When overused or abused, pot can lead to dependency and mess with your memory and emotions.

There are at least two active chemicals in marijuana that researchers think have medicinal applications. Those are cannabidiol (CBD) — which seems to impact the brain without a high— and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — which has pain relieving (and other) properties.

Also keep in mind that some of these health benefits can potentially be gained by taking THC pills like Dronabinol, a synthetic form of THC, which in some ways might be more effective than smoked marijuana.

Randy Astaiza contributed to an earlier version of this story.

Quote:It can be used to treat Glaucoma.

Marijuana use can be used to treat and prevent the eye disease glaucoma, which increases pressure in the eyeball, damaging the optic nerve and causing loss of vision.

Marijuana decreases the pressure inside the eye, according to the National Eye Institute: "Studies in the early 1970s showed that marijuana, when smoked, lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma."

These effects of the drug may slow the progression of the disease, preventing blindness.Read more:

Quote:It may help reverse the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and improve lung health.

According to a study published in Journal of the American Medical Association in January 2012, marijuana does not impair lung function and can even increase lung capacity.

Researchers looking for risk factors of heart disease tested the lung function of 5,115 young adults over the course of 20 years. Tobacco smokers lost lung function over time, but pot users actually showed an increase in lung capacity.

It's possible that the increased lung capacity maybe  due to taking a deep breaths while inhaling the drug and not from a therapeutic chemical in the drug.

Quote:It can help control epileptic seizures.

Marijuana use can prevent epileptic seizures, a 2003 study showed.

Robert J. DeLorenzo, of Virginia Commonwealth University, gave marijuana extract and synthetic marijuana to epileptic rats. The drugs rid the rats of the seizures for about 10 hours. Cannabinoids like the active ingredients in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (also known as THC), control seizures by binding to the brain cells responsible for controlling excitability and regulating relaxation.

The findings were published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Quote:It also decreases the symptoms of a severe seizure disorder known as Dravet's Syndrome.

Charlotte Figi has Dravet's Syndrome, and her parents are giving her marijuana to treat her seizures.

During the research for his documentary "Weed," Gupta interviewed the Figi family, who treats their 5-year-old daughter using a medical marijuana strain high in cannabidiol and low in THC.

Their daughter, Charlotte, has Dravet Syndrome, which causes seizures and severe developmental delays.

According to the film, the drug has decreased her seizures from 300 a week to just one every seven days. Forty other children in the state are using the same strain of marijuana to treat their seizures — and it seems to be working.

The doctors who recommended this treatment say that the cannabidiol in the plant interacts with the brain cells to quiet the excessive activity in the brain that causes these seizures.

As Gutpa notes, a Florida hospital that specializes in the disorder, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Drug Enforcement agency don't endorse marijuana as a treatment for Dravet or other seizure disorders.

Quote:A chemical found in marijuana stops cancer from spreading.

CBD may help prevent cancer from spreading, researchers at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco reported in 2007.

Cannabidiol stops cancer by turning off a gene called Id-1, the study, published in the journal Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, found. Cancer cells make more copies of this gene than non-cancerous cells, and it helps them spread through the body.

The researchers studied breast cancer cells in the lab that had high expression levels of Id-1 and treated them with cannabidiol. After treatment the cells had decreased Id-1 expression and were less aggressive spreaders.

In "WEED," Gupta also mentioned a few studies in the U.S., Spain, and Israel that suggest the compounds in cannabis could even kill cancer cells.

Quote:It may decrease anxiety.

Medical marijuana users claim the drug helps relieve pain and suppress nausea — the two main reasons it's often used to relieve the side effects of chemotherapy.

In 2010, researchers at Harvard Medical School suggested that that some of the drug's benefits may actually be from reduced anxiety, which would improve the smoker's mood and act as a sedative in low doses.

Beware, though, higher doses may increase anxiety and make you paranoid.

Quote:THC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Marijuana may be able to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a study led by Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute suggests.

The 2006 study, published in the journal Molecular Pharmaceutics, found that THC, the active chemical in marijuana, slows the formation of amyloid plaques by blocking the enzyme in the brain that makes them. These plaques are what kill brain cells and cause Alzheimer's.

Quote:The drug eases the pain of multiple sclerosis.

Marijuana may ease painful symptoms of multiple sclerosis, a study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in May suggests.

Jody Corey-Bloom studied 30 multiple sclerosis patients with painful contractions in their muscles. These patients didn't respond to other treatments, but after smoking marijuana for a few days they were in less pain.

The THC in the pot binds to receptors in the nerves and muscles to relieve pain. Other studies suggest that the chemical also helps control the muscle spasms.

Quote:Other types of muscle spasms could be helped too.

Other types of muscle spasms respond to marijuana as well. Gupta also found a teenager named Chaz who was using medical marijuana to treat diaphragm spasms that were untreatable by other, prescribed and very strong, medications.

His condition is called myoclonus diaphragmatic flutter (also known as Leeuwenhoek's Disease) and causes non stop spasming in the abdominal muscles which are not only painful, but interfere with breathing and speaking.

Smoking marijuana is able to calm the attacks almost immediately, as it calms the muscles of the diaphragm.

Quote:It lessens side effects from treating hepatitis C and increases treatment effectiveness.

California dispensaries have been the subject of federal raids

Treatment for hepatitis C infection is harsh — negative side effects include fatigue, nausea, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and depression — and lasts for months. Many people aren't able to finish their treatment course because of the side effects.

But, pot to the rescue: A 2006 study in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology found that 86% of patients using marijuana successfully completed their Hep C therapy, while only 29% of non-smokers completed their treatment, possibly because the marijuana helps lessens the treatments side effects.

Marijuana also seems to improve the treatment's effectiveness: 54% of hep C patients smoking marijuana got their viral levels low and kept them low, in comparison to only 8% of nonsmokers.

Quote:Marijuana treats inflammatory bowel diseases.

Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis could benefit from marijuana use, studies suggest.

University of Nottingham researchers found in 2010 that chemicals in marijuana, including THC and cannabidiol, interact with cells in the body that play an important role in gut function and immune responses. The study was published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

THC-like compounds made by the body increase the permeability of the intestines, allowing bacteria in. The plant-derived cannabinoids in marijuana block these body-cannabinoids, preventing this permeability and making the intestinal cells bond together tighter.

Quote:It relieves arthritis discomfort.



Marijuana alleviates pain, reduces inflammation, and promotes sleep, which may help relieve pain and discomfort for people with rheumatoid arthritis, researchers announced in 2011.



Researchers from rheumatology units at several hospitals gave their patients Sativex, a cannabinoid-based pain-relieving medicine. After a two-week period, people on Sativex had a significant reduction in pain and improved sleep quality compared to placebo users.

Quote:It keeps you skinny and helps your metabolism.

A study published in the American Journal Of Medicine on April 15 of last year suggested that pot smokers are skinnier than the average person and have healthier metabolism and reaction to sugars, even though they do end up eating more calories because of the munchies.

The study analyzed data from more than 4,500 adult Americans — 579 of whom were current marijuana smokers, meaning they had smoked in the last month. About 2,000 had used marijuana in the past, while another 2,000 had never used the drug.

They studied their body's response to eating sugars: their levels of the hormone insulin and their blood sugar levels while they hadn't eaten in nine hours, and after eating sugar.

Not only are pot users skinnier, but their body has a healthier response to sugar.

Quote:It improves the symptoms of Lupus, an autoimmune disorder.

Medical marijuana is being used to treat the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Ertyhematosus, which is when the body starts attacking itself for some unknown reason.

Some chemicals in marijuana seem to have a calming effect on the immune system, which may be how it helps deal with symptoms of Lupus. The rest of the positive impact of the marijuana is probably from the effects on pain and nausea.

Quote:While not really a health benefit, marijuana spurs creativity in the brain.

Contrary to stoner stereotypes, marijuana usage has actually been shown to have some positive mental effects, particularly in terms of increasing creativity. Even though people's short-term memories tend to function worse when high, people get better at tests requiring them to come up with new ideas.

One study tested participants on their ability to come up with different words related to a concept, and found that using cannabis allowed people to come up with a greater range of related concepts, seeming "to make the brain better at detecting those remote associations that lead to radically new ideas," according to Wired.

Other researchers have found that some participants improve their "verbal fluency," their ability to come up with different words, while using marijuana.

Part of this increased creative ability may come from the release of dopamine in the brain, lessening inhibitions and allowing people to feel more relaxed, giving the brain the ability to perceive things differently.

Quote:Marijuana might be able to help with Crohn's disease.

Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disorder that causes pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and more. But a recent study in Israel showed that smoking a joint significantly reduced Crohn's disease symptoms in 10 out of 11 patients, and caused a complete remission of the disease in five of those patients.

That's a small study, but other research has shown similar effects. The cannabinoids from marijuana seem to help the gut regulate bacteria and intestinal function.

Quote:Pot soothes tremors for people with Parkinson's disease.

Recent research from Israel shows that smoking marijuana significantly reduces pain and tremors and improves sleep for Parkinson's disease patients. Particularly impressive was the improved fine motor skills among patients.

Medical marijuana is legal in Israel for multiple conditions, and a lot of research into the medical uses of cannabis is done there, supported by the Israeli government.

Quote:Marijuana helps veterans suffering from PTSD.

The Department of Health and Human Services recently signed off on a proposal to study marijuana's potential as part of treatment for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

Marijuana is approved to treat PTSD in some states already. In New Mexico, PTSD is the number one reason for people to get a license for medical marijuana, but this is the first time the U.S. government has approved a proposal that incorporates smoked or vaporized marijuana, which is currently classified by the government as a drug with no accepted medical applications.

Naturally occurring cannabinoids, similar to THC, help regulate the system that causes fear and anxiety in the body and brain.

Quote:Marijuana protects the brain after a stroke.

Research from the University of Nottingham shows that marijuana may help protect the brain from damage caused by stroke, by reducing the size of the area affected by the stroke — at least in rats, mice, and monkeys.

This isn't the only research that has shown neuroprotective effects from cannabis. Some research shows that the plant may help protect the brain after other traumatic events, like concussions.

Quote:It might protect the brain from concussions and trauma.

There is some evidence that marijuana can help heal the brain after a concussion or other traumatic injury. A recent study in the journal Cerebral Cortex showed that in mice, marijuana lessened the bruising of the brain and helped with healing mechanisms after a traumatic injury.

Harvard professor emeritus of psychiatry and marijuana advocate Lester Grinspoon recently wrote an open letter to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell, saying the NFL should stop testing players for marijuana, and that the league should start funding research into the plant's ability to protect the brain.

"Already, many doctors and researchers believe that marijuana has incredibly powerful neuroprotective properties, an understanding based on both laboratory and clinical data," he writes.

Goodell recently said that he'd consider permitting athletes to use marijuana if medical research shows that it's an effective neuroprotective agent.

Quote:It can help eliminate nightmares.

This is a complicated one, because it involves effects that can be both positive and negative. Marijuana disturbs sleep cycles by interrupting the later stages of REM sleep. In the long run, this could be a problem for frequent users.

However, for people suffering from serious nightmares, especially those associated with PTSD, this can be helpful. Nightmares and other dreams occur during those same stages of sleep. By interrupting REM sleep, many of those dreams may not occur. Research into using a synthetic cannabinoid, like THC, but not the same, showed a significant decrease in the number of nightmares in patients with PTSD.

Additionally, even if frequent use can be bad for sleep, marijuana may be a better sleep aid than some other substances that people use. Some of those, including medication and alcohol, may potentially have even worse effects on sleep, though more research is needed on the topic.

Quote:Weed reduces some of the awful pain and nausea from chemo, and stimulates appetite.

One of the most well-known medical uses of marijuana is for people going through chemotherapy.

Cancer patients being treated with chemo suffer from painful nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. This can cause additional health complications.

Marijuana can help reduce these side effects, alleviating pain, decreasing nausea, and stimulating the appetite. There are also multiple FDA-approved cannabinoid drugs that use THC, the main active chemical in marijuana, for the same purposes.

Quote:Marijuana can help people trying to cut back on drinking.

Marijuana is safer than alcohol. That's not to say it's completely risk free, but it's much less addictive and doesn't cause nearly as much physical damage.

Disorders like alcoholism involve disruptions in the endocannabinoid system. Because of that, some people think cannabis might help patients struggling with those disorders.

Research in Harm Reduction Journal shows that some people use marijuana as a less harmful substitute for alcohol, prescription drugs, and other illegal drugs. Some of the most common reasons for patients to make that substitution are the less adverse side effects from marijuana and the fact that it is less likely to cause withdrawal problems.

Some people do become psychologically dependent on marijuana, and this doesn't mean that it's a cure for substance abuse problems. But, from a harm-reduction standpoint, it can help.

Source: "23 Health Benefits Of Marijuana"

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  Georgia’s Medical Marijuana Law (HB1 Haleigh’s Hope Act) FAQ
Posted by: wikicannabis - 06-27-2015, 07:18 PM - Forum: Medical Marijuana State Laws Wiki - Replies (1)

The following is an excerpt for State of Georgia's Medical Marijuana Law FAQ. The link has an extensive list of questions and answers about Georgia's HB 1 Haleigh's Hope Act and their Low THC Oil Registry.

Quote:Frequently asked questions on Georgia’s new medical marijuana law, HB1 Haleigh’s Hope Act which legalizes “low THC oil” in the State of Ga.

Haleigh’s Hope Act“, also called HB1, is Georgia’s new medical marijuana law named after 5 year old,Haleigh Cox, who inspired the legislature in the State of Ga. to vote 160-1 to allow medical marijuana in the state.

While the law legalizes medical marijuana in the State of Ga, there are very specific conditions and rules that patients must follow to qualify for the new law. We have tried to summarize some of the most common questions that Georgia medical marijuana patients are likely to ask about the new law HB1. The information is not meant to be complete and is provided purely for general informational purposes. We have provided instructions on how to download a copy of the actual bill for your own review. We encourage any potential medical marijuana patient in Georgia to read it to understand the full provisions of “Haleigh’s Hope Act”.

LINK TO THE FULL GEORGIA'S MARIJUANA LAW FAQ

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  New Fed Study Shows Alcohol Impairs Driving Far Greater Than Marijuana
Posted by: wikicannabis - 06-27-2015, 07:12 PM - Forum: Marijuana in the News - No Replies

No surprise here but a report saying alcohol affects driving much more than weed!  Cool


Quote:New Fed Study Shows Alcohol Impairs Driving Far Greater Than Marijuana

new study by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded, in part, by the federal government, confirms what most cannabis advocates and users already know; alcohol impairs driving far more than marijuana.

The study examined 18 “occasional cannabis consumers” (13 men, ages 21-37 yrs), who stated they had used marijuana at least once in the past month but no more often than 3 days a week. The test subjects took a 45 minute driving simulator test after vaping marijuana, drinking alcohol, or taking a placebo. The test was partly designed to measure how many times the car left the lane, weaving in the lane, and the speed of the car.
The researchers are quoted as saying…
Quote:[Alcohol] “significantly increased lane departures/minimum and maximum lateral acceleration; these measures were not sensitive to cannabis”

[Stoned drivers] “may attempt to drive more cautiously to compensate for impairing effects, whereas alcohol-influenced drivers often underestimate their impairment and take more risk.”

“alcohol, but not marijuana, increased the number of times the car actually left the lane and the speed of the weaving.”

Similar Fed Funded Study From November 1993: 
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration did another study going back more than 20 years. The “Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance” report dated November, 1993 was performed by researchers at University of Limburg, The Netherlands, and sponsored by the U.S. Dept of Transportation.
Unlike the recent study, this one was performed with real cars and “in the presence of other traffic”.
Their conclusion is quoted below (edited with highlights):

Quote:This program of research has shown that marijuana, when taken alone, produces a moderate degree of driving impairment which is related to the consumed THC dose. The impairment manifests itself mainly in the ability to maintain a steady lateral position on the road, but its magnitude is not exceptional in comparison with changes produced by many medicinal drugs and alcohol. [i]Drivers under the influence of marijuana retain insight in their performance and will compensate where they can, for example, by slowing down or increasing effort. As a consequence, THC’s adverse effects on driving performance appear relatively small.[/i]

Link to the Full Report: “Marijuana and Actual Driving Performance


Marijuana Does Affect Driving At Levels


The recently released study does indicates that marijuana at levels can affect driving, with a reduction in peripheral vision (i.e. “tunnel vision”) noted as a main affected measure.

The THC level in the blood higher than 13.1 nanograms per milliliter of blood had an impact on weaving similar to blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 percent (most widely used cutoff for driving in most states).

Issue Of Testing THC Concentration In Drivers


One of the problems faced by the researchers was trying to accurately and timely measure the level of THC in the test subjects. Currently, the most accurate test for THC is a blood test, but as the researchers noted, “THC concentrations drop rapidly during the time required to collect a blood specimen in the U.S., generally within two to four hours.” An oral roadside saliva test is available but is currently not precise enough to use for legal purposes.


Improvement Needed In Legal Definition of “Driving Stoned”


Current “concentration-based” marijuana driving laws face a myriad of problems. States like Colorado and Washington have established a legal threshold of 5 nanograms, which is less than half of the 13.1 nanograms for impairment noted in the current study. And trying to get a timely reading of a driver’s THC level will require new tests than what is currently available.

The issue of driving while high will only get bigger as more states legalize the use of marijuana. Similar to industries that self-regulate, cannabis advocates must accept that driving stoned at certain levels should not be allowed and must help devise a sensible and fair solution that addresses all users; not just occasional user but also the heavy and first time users.

Drivers Stoned on Marijuana Test Their Driving Skills Video

The following is a CNN video from a few years back…


Source: http://weedjournal.org/2015/06/25/new-fe...marijuana/

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Blueberry

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Blueberry Yum Yum

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